The changing climate and oceans have significant impacts on the nation’s valuable marine life and ecosystems, and the many communities and economies that depend on them. Scientists expect environmental changes such as warming oceans, rising sea levels, frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, and ocean acidification to increase with continued shifts in the planet’s climate system.
These environmental changes impact every aspect of our mission—from managing fisheries and aquaculture, to conserving protected resources and vital habitats. There is much at risk. For example, fisheries support more than 1.7 million jobs and $253 billion in economic activity in the United States every year. Coastal habitats provide important services including nursery areas for fish and protected species and protection for people and property from storms and flooding. Preparing for changing oceans will help sustain the nation’s valuable marine resources, fisheries, and coastal communities.
NOAA climate science is the foundation for smart policy and decision-making in a changing world. We are taking a proactive approach to increase the resilience and adaptation of marine life and the people who depend on them. Our Climate Science Strategy provides decision-makers with answers to four key questions:
- What is changing?
- Why is it changing?
- How will it change?
- How to respond?
NOAA’s climate stewardship protects our lands, waters, resources, and people. Other federal agencies, state and local governments, and businesses look to NOAA to understand how they can adapt and respond to climate change, and provide science-based services to their constituencies. And we work with partners to minimize impacts, adapt to the changes that are coming, and ensure future generations can enjoy the benefits of healthy marine ecosystems.
1 football field per hour
Communities and economies in southern states are also being impacted by changing climate and ocean conditions. Louisiana loses a football-field-size area of coastal wetlands to the sea every hour due to rising seas and sinking lands.
$244.1 billion in economic activity and 1.74 million jobs
Climate change is already having a profound effect on life in the oceans. Droughts, floods, rising seas, ocean acidification, and warming oceans are changing the productivity of our waters and areas where wildlife live, spawn, and feed. There is much at risk—marine fisheries and seafood industries supported $244.1 billion in economic activity and 1.74 million jobs in 2017.
A rate of about 44 miles per decade
A number of marine species are shifting poleward at a rate of about 44 miles per decade. Many species are moving towards cooler regions as their environment warms. For marine species, this often means moving towards higher latitudes or into deeper waters. They are moving 5–10 times faster than terrestrial species. This causes issues for fishers and fishing communities that depend on them for their livelihoods. Global average sea level rise has risen by about 7–8 inches since 1900. Almost half of this rise has occurred since 1993 as oceans have warmed and land-based ice has melted. Relative to the year 2000, sea level rise is likely to rise 1–4 feet by the end of the century.
$140 billion by 2100
The loss of the recreational benefits alone from coral reefs in the United States expected by 2100. Coral reefs, which provide shoreline protection and support fisheries and recreation, are threatened by ocean warming and acidification. Warming has led to mass bleaching and outbreaks of coral diseases off the coastlines of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Florida, Hawai‘i, and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands.
Annual average Arctic sea ice extent has decreased between 3.5 percent and 4.1 percent per decade
The percentage of annual average Arctic sea ice extent that has decreased since the early 1980s. September sea ice extent, which is the annual minimum extent, has decreased between 10.7 percent and 15.9 percent per decade. As the climate continues to warm, it is likely that the summer Arctic will be sea ice-free within this century. This will have major impacts on the Arctic ecosystems and the people who depend on them.
NOAA Fisheries Climate Strategy
The NOAA Fisheries Climate Science Strategy is part of a proactive approach to increase the production, delivery, and use of climate-related information needed to fulfill our mandates. The strategy identifies seven objectives to provide decision-makers with the information they need to reduce impacts and increase resilience with changing climate and ocean conditions.
Regional Action Plans
Working with our partners, we developed regional action plans to guide how we implement our national climate science strategy in each of our regions. The goal is to provide decision-makers with the information they need to reduce impacts of changing climate and oceans and increase resilience of valuable marine resources and the people who depend on them.
We support a NOAA-Wide Ocean Acidification Program, established by Congress in 2009, which will plan and oversee a long-term coastal and open-ocean monitoring program and lead research on the impacts of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems and the socioeconomic implications of these impacts.
Assessing the Vulnerability of Fish Stocks
Our Fish Species Climate Vulnerability Assessment Methodology provides decision-makers with information on the relative vulnerability of fish species with expected changes in climate and ocean conditions. The methodology uses information on species life history characteristics, species distributions and projected future climate, and ocean conditions to estimate the relative vulnerability of fish species to changes in abundance.
Understanding the Impacts
From the sea to the sun and coast to coast, NOAA is observing, measuring, monitoring, and collecting data using satellites, ships, buoys, planes, drones, sensors, and more. Our scientists work every day at sea, on shore, and in laboratories to track and forecast changes in U.S. marine ecosystems and understand their impacts. We use our Climate Science Strategy to proactively increase the production, delivery, and use of climate-related information to help guide our science and management activities. The Strategy is being implemented through regional action plans. These plans identify high priority regional climate-related information needs and actions so that we can better track, understand, project, and respond to marine ecosystem changes on a regional level.
Information on current conditions—and what is changing—is critical in providing sound scientific advice for sustainable management. NOAA provides essential baseline and trend information to inform decision makers about the impacts of climate change on the ocean with data on ocean temperature, sea level, currents, species distribution, and more.
Understanding why and how the changing climate and oceans affects marine life—and the communities that depend on them—will help us better forecast future conditions and identify how to reduce those effects. We are building a coalition of partners to improve our understanding of how and why the changing climate and oceans impact marine ecosystems. This includes identifying the drivers of change as well as which resources and ecosystems may be most at risk and what actions might reduce risks and increase resilience.
Projecting Future Conditions and Responses
NOAA Fisheries and its partners are using a variety of approaches to project how marine ecosystems and specific resources might change in the future. For example, we are looking at how the distribution and abundance of marine resources may change. We are considering how these changes may affect businesses and communities, and how to prepare and respond to these changes.
Effective resource management depends on robust information about past, current, and projected future conditions of marine ecosystems. Efforts are under way to deliver better projections to help improve stock assessments, assess risks, and evaluate best management strategies under a range of likely future climate and ocean conditions.
Responding to Change
Changing climate and oceans affect nearly every aspect of our mission, from fisheries management and aquaculture, to conservation of protected resources and vital habitats.
To address these growing impacts, NOAA delivers climate services to federal agencies, states, Tribes, communities, and businesses across America. We are responsible for providing best-in-class data and information that helps people make science-based decisions, especially at the local level where planning for an uncertain future is the most difficult and where decision makers may need technical support.
NOAA helps people build the capacity to recover quickly from extreme weather events and changes in climate by providing science-based decision-support tools and programs that promote sustainable fisheries, restore coastal ecosystems that minimize the impacts of storms, and provide ecological and economic benefits. Our Climate Science Strategy, Regional Climate Action Plans, and Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management Road Map will help scientists, fishermen, managers, and coastal businesses better understand what’s changing, what’s at risk, and what actions are needed to safeguard America’s valuable marine resources and resource-dependent communities. We are committed to using the best available science to prepare for and respond to climate change through informed management decisions.
Adapting Fisheries Management to New Challenges
Changing ocean conditions are affecting the location of fish stocks, the productivity of fish stocks, and the fishing industry’s interactions with bycatch, protected species, and other ocean users. Fish stocks could become less productive or move out of range of the fishermen who catch them. These shifts can cause social, economic, and other impacts on fisheries and fishing-dependent communities. As a result, fishing industries and coastal businesses can face significant challenges in preparing for and adapting to changing climate and oceans. And there is much at risk—marine fisheries and seafood industries supported more than $244.1 billion in economic activity and 1.74 million jobs in 2017.
To reduce impacts, increase resilience, and take advantage of new opportunities, NOAA uses the best available science to evaluate fisheries management strategies in the face of climate change. We are exploring potential management approaches, and have identified challenges and recommendations for improving science and management. In partnership with the Regional Fishery Management Councils, Fishery Commissions, and states, we are taking steps to help fisheries prepare for and respond to changing climate and ocean conditions including:
- Ensuring well-managed fish stocks with a sustainable biomass and stock structure
- Producing regional ecosystem status reports to track and provide early warnings of climate and ecosystem changes in each region
- Using climate vulnerability assessments of major fish stocks to better understand their vulnerability and support management action
- Using scenario planning and other tools to identify effective fishery management strategies for current and future conditions
Spotlight on Science: Next Generation of Stock Assessments
Changing climate and ocean conditions directly impact the collection and analysis of data used in the stock assessment process for U.S. fisheries management. We are implementing a Next Generation Stock Assessment Enterprise framework to address a suite of new demands and challenges. This includes determining how best to account for the effects of changing ocean conditions. The goal is to ensure sustainable, well-managed stocks and stock structure using available climate information.
Spotlight on Management: Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management
Our ecosystem-based fisheries management approach is a vital tool for helping fishery managers and fishermen prepare for and adapt to climate change. It takes a holistic view of the entire ecosystem to more effectively assess the health of any given fishery. EBFM considers the impacts on fish stock productivity from social, economic, and ecological variables—such as changing ocean conditions—across multiple fisheries and habitats. It is a cornerstone of NOAA's efforts to sustainably manage the nation's marine fisheries. Our EBFM Policy and Road Map describe how we implement ecosystem-based fisheries management.
At the regional level, regional fishery management councils develop fishery ecosystem plans. These plans help fishery managers determine whether management effectively incorporates core ecosystem principles.
A Role for Aquaculture
Intensifying droughts, storms, and other climate-related events have revealed substantial vulnerabilities for land-based food production. When we look at the future of our food systems, we have to consider a growing population, a changing climate, and increasing strain on our natural resources. Aquaculture is an opportunity to complement wild harvest and sustainably increase our domestic food supply.
Building sustainable marine aquaculture—ocean farming of fish, shellfish, and seaweeds—can reduce resource pressure and present novel resilience opportunities for a changing environment. While not immune to the effects of climate change, aquaculture producers have more control of fish and shellfish raised in ocean-based farming operations. They can keep juvenile finfish and shellfish in hatcheries longer to safeguard them during the most vulnerable phase of development. And ocean-based farming operations generally require less fresh water and land resources, and produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions to produce food than land-based farming.
Additionally, aquatic crops like shellfish and seaweed provide important ecosystem services, including water filtration and the reduced ocean acidification around farm sites. Aquaculture farms can also provide habitat for fish and crustaceans, increasing an area's biodiversity and benefiting wild populations. NOAA scientists are studying the nitrogen removal that shellfish aquaculture can provide to coastal communities and seaweed’s potential to decrease carbonic acid—the main perpetrator of ocean acidification.
Conserving and Rebuilding Protected Species
Climate change is affecting marine life. Warming oceans, rising sea levels, ocean acidification, droughts, and floods change the productivity of our waters. Many of the marine species we work to conserve and protect, including endangered and threatened species, are already compromised. They may be negatively impacted by these rapid environmental shifts.
NOAA’s sound science approach underlies our work addressing climate change challenges to our marine species conservation, management, and recovery mission. We are working with partners to improve our scientific understanding of the impact on protected species. And we are using the best available science to inform our recovery and conservation efforts and enhance species’ resilience and adaptation strategies. For example, we are:
- Developing a climate resilience toolkit with climate science data, maps, guidance, an expert database, and many other resources for U.S. climate change stakeholders
- Conducting climate vulnerability assessments for marine mammals and sea turtles to better understand these species’ vulnerability
- Developed guidance to inform Endangered Species Act decisions (PDF, 8 pages) in light of anticipated changes in ocean conditions
- Conducting scenario planning exercises to help identify science and management needs to support recovery actions for Atlantic salmon, North Atlantic right whales, and Puget Sound salmon
- Conducting climate-smart conservation training for NOAA staff and partners to help them learn about our marine-focused climate adaptation tools and how to incorporate them into their work
Protecting and Restoring Habitat
Climate change is accelerating habitat loss, disrupting fisheries, and increasing storm frequency and intensity. As a result, the demand and need for habitat protection and restoration solutions continues to grow. Coastal, riverine, and marine habitats provide us with countless climate resilience benefits, from nursery grounds for fish to protection from storms.
NOAA Fisheries has a long-standing history of working with partners to protect and restore coastal and marine habitat to sustain fisheries and recover protected species. This work supports climate-resilient coastal communities and the storage of carbon in coastal habitats. In addition, coastal habitat restoration supports long-term economic recovery across a diversity of sectors. A recent study found that habitat restoration created on average 15 jobs per million dollars spent. Up to 30 jobs per million dollars are created for labor-intensive restoration projects.
We provide technical and financial assistance to thousands of coastal habitat restoration projects. They support communities that rely on those habitats for flood protection, natural resources, and jobs. For example, the Southern Flow Corridor project in Tillamook County, Oregon restored tidal wetland connectivity to more than 400 acres in the Tillamook estuary. This work not only restored critical habitat for endangered Oregon Coast coho salmon but also reduced local flooding and protected more than 500 structures.
NOAA Fisheries has recently completed a climate vulnerability assessment in the Northeast to consider climate impacts on fish habitat. The results will enable resource managers to prioritize habitat research, protection, and restoration initiatives.
We also work with federal agency partners to ensure that adverse habitat impacts to the fish, wildlife, and cultural “trust” resources that NOAA conserves and manages are avoided or minimized.
Climate, Ecosystems, and Fisheries
Climate change is significantly impacting the nation’s valuable marine and Great Lakes ecosystems and fisheries. It is also impacting the many people, businesses, and economies that depend upon them.
To prepare and respond to these changes, we have developed the NOAA Climate, Ecosystems, and Fisheries Initiative. It will build the end-to-end, operational modeling, and decision support system needed to provide the information and capacity resource managers and stakeholders need to reduce impacts and increase resilience in a changing climate.
Warming oceans, rising seas, melting sea ice, and increasing acidification are impacting the structure of marine and Great Lakes ecosystems, and the distribution and abundance of species in many regions. These changes affect many parts of NOAA’s mission, from fisheries management and aquaculture to conservation of protected resources and habitats. The impacts are expected to increase and there is much at risk.
About the Initiative
The Climate, Ecosystems, and Fisheries Initiative is a cross-NOAA effort to build the nationwide, operational ocean modeling and decision support system needed to reduce impacts, increase resilience, and help adapt to changing ocean conditions. The system will provide decision makers with the actionable information and capacity they need to prepare for and respond to changing conditions today, next year, and for decades to come.
The system addresses four core requirements for climate-ready decision-making for marine resources:
- Robust forecasts and projections of ocean and Great Lakes conditions for use in developing climate-informed advice
- Operational capability to assess risks, evaluate options, and provide robust advice on adapting to changing conditions
- Decision-maker capability to use climate-informed advice to reduce risks and increase the resilience of resources and the people that depend on them
- Continuous validation and innovation through observations and research
The Initiative is a timely, efficient, and effective way to address NOAA’s requirements for climate-informed management of marine and Great Lakes resources. Working with many partners, the Initiative will provide decision makers the information and capacity they need to help safeguard resources and resource-dependent communities in a rapidly changing world.
Integrated Ocean Modeling and Decision Support System
This graphic shows the major components of the Initiative's Integrated Modeling and Decision Support System. The end-to-end system is designed for innovation and feedback to ensure continuous improvement in meeting decision maker needs.
Regional Ocean Modeling
This component builds on existing NOAA modeling systems to deliver robust near-term forecasts (e.g., daily to monthly) and longer term projections (seasonal to multi-decadal) of ocean conditions in all six U.S. ocean regions. This nationwide ocean modeling system is the essential foundation for early warnings, socio-ecological projections, risk assessments and climate-informed advice (such as best fishery management and community adaptation strategies). Decision makers need this information to reduce climate change impacts and adapt. The system delivers customized products for specific users in each region.
The Information Hub will provide the data management system and portal to manage, store, and provide easy access to the information produced by the ocean modeling component. The Hub is critical for handling and curating large amounts of model output (forecasts, projections) for a range of experts, such as those in fisheries, coastal communities, wind energy development, and aquaculture. The Hub also includes relevant data sets, such as reanalyses, and provides web-based systems for analyzing and visualizing the data.
Regional Decision Support Teams
Regional Decision Support Teams provide the operational capacity to produce the climate-related information and advice needed by decision makers for effective resource management of fisheries, protected species, and protected areas, industry planning, and community adaptation. The Teams work as part of NOAA’s Regional Fisheries Science Centers to provide:
- Early warnings and projections of future ecosystem conditions, such as future species distributions and abundance
- Risk assessments
- Actionable advice for climate-ready fisheries management, protected species conservation, protected area management, and community adaptation
Decision Maker Capacity
The CEFI System will increase the capacity of resource managers, fishing communities, and other decision makers to use climate-related information and advice to take action to reduce impacts and adapt to changing ocean conditions.
Targeted Research and Observations
Targeted research and observations on changing ocean conditions and how to respond is critical to ensure the system can continuously validate its products and improve its operation. This effort builds on NOAA's expertise and strong partnerships with academia and industry.
For more information, contact Roger Griffis.
Oceans and coasts are among the nation’s most treasured and valuable resources. From fish and fisheries to whales, sea turtles, coral reefs and oysters, these living marine resources are at risk from a variety of impacts including a changing climate. Climate-related changes in ocean and coastal ecosystems such as warming oceans, rising seas, ocean acidification, and coastal droughts are impacting these resources and the many people, businesses, and communities that depend on them.
Climate change impacts vary by region, so we have developed region-specific plans to respond to the growing demands for information on what’s changing, what’s at risk, and how to respond to climate-related changes in marine and coastal ecosystems. The plans are designed to increase the production, delivery, and use of scientific information needed to fulfill our mandates in a changing world.
The Alaska Fisheries Science Center is leading the way in cutting-edge research and monitoring to track and project the impacts of changing sea ice and other climate impacts on marine resources and resource-dependent communities in the region. Climate-related changes include loss of sea ice, changing ocean temperatures, changing ocean chemistry and related changes in ocean productivity and diversity.
Climate News from Alaska
- Changing Environmental Conditions on the Yukon May Pose Challenge for Juvenile Salmon
- 3D Stereo Camera Technology Supports Sustainable Fisheries
- Zooplankton Research Reveals Glimpse of Potential Future Northern Bering Sea Ecosystem
The Northeast Fisheries Science Center has a variety of research and monitoring efforts that help track, understand and forecast climate-related impacts on resources and resource-dependent communities. Climate-related changes include increasing ocean temperatures, rising sea levels, ocean acidification, changes in precipitation, ocean currents, ocean productivity and diversity.
- Climate Change in the Northeast
- The Northeast Shelf: A Changing Ecosystem
- Northeast Regional Climate Action Plan
Climate News from New England and the Mid-Atlantic
- Al Roker Showcases Aquaculture as a Climate Solution
- Recreational Fishery Data Reveals Climate-Driven Shifts for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Catch
- Ocean Acidification and Warming Hinder Juvenile Atlantic Sea Scallop Growth
The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center is at the forefront of monitoring ecosystem health, including the health of coral reefs, to mitigate the effects of new threats. Climate-related changes include rising sea levels, changing ocean temperatures, changing ocean chemistry, and related changes in ocean productivity and diversity.
Climate News from the Pacific Islands
- Reef Assessment and Mapping Mission to the Central Pacific
- Mariana Archipelago Seafloor Mapping and Coral Reef Assessments Complete
- A Cautionary Tale: The 2019 Coral Bleaching Event in Hawaiʻi
The Southeast Fisheries Science Center conducts a variety of research and monitoring efforts to help sustain and restore populations, protect and restore habitats in healthy ecosystems, and understand climate-related changes. Climate-related changes in the Southeast include rising sea levels, increasing sea surface temperatures, extreme weather, and coastal and ocean acidification that can affect the productivity and diversity of the region’s marine and coastal resources.
Climate News from the Southeast
- More Than $770,000 Awarded for Ruth Gates Coral Restoration Innovation Grants Projects
- NOAA’s Largest Wetland Restoration Project Underway in Louisiana
- Understanding Impacts of Black Mangroves on Juvenile Shrimp
The Northwest Fisheries Science Center and Southwest Fisheries Science Center seek to improve our understanding of climate change on the West Coast’s marine and estuarine ecosystems and the species and communities that rely on them. We use the latest scientific methods to investigate climate-related environmental changes including precipitation patterns, streamflow, water temperatures, sea level, and water chemistry. We use what we learn to forecast likely impacts, recover vulnerable species, and help mitigate the effects of climate change on our ecosystem.
Climate News from the West Coast
Alaska Salmon Research Task Force Meeting Agenda for September 19, 2023
Meeting dates for approaches and milestones along with the meeting schedule
Alaska Salmon Task Force Meeting Minutes for July 27, 2023.
Data & Maps
Outreach & Education
Scientists from the Recruitment Processes Program at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center are…
The 2010 northern Bering Sea bottom trawl survey occurred as an extension of the annual eastern…
In 2017, the 36th annual eastern Bering Sea shelf bottom trawl survey was extended northward to…