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Aversive Conditioning and Monk Seal–Human Interactions in the Main Hawaiian Islands Workshop November 10-11, 2009

December 09, 2019

The critically endangered monk seal, is found in tropical and subtropical waters of the central Pacific and Mediterranean Sea. Currently, the majority of the estimated 1161 Hawaiian monk seals are distributed throughout the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

The most critically endangered genera of seals, the monk seal, are found in tropical and subtropical waters of the central Pacific and Mediterranean Sea. The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) evolved 10–11 million years ago, although it remains unclear as to when this species first reached the main Hawaiian Islands.

Currently, the majority of the estimated 1161 Hawaiian monk seals are distributed throughout the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). It is estimated that less than 10% of the population is found along the MHI (Carretta et al., in review).


Jenkinson EM. 2011. Aversive conditioning and monk seal-human interactions in the Main Hawaiian Islands: Aversive Conditioning Workshop, Honolulu, Hawaii, November 10-11, 2009. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-PIFSC-25, 28 p.

Last updated by Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center on 12/07/2021